The Consistory of Gai Saber is an attempt to normalize the poetic creation in Occitan that was started about 50 years after the annexation of Central Occitania to France. Guilhem Molinier is asked to write down a treatise to put the poetic creation into a very tight frame, under control of the Church and of the French power.
The Leys d’amors are not the first edition of Molinier’s work. A first one, know as Las flors del gay saber had been redacted around 1340. Nevertheless, the 1356 manuscript is shorter, and has undergone a copy edition to be easier usable by manteneires (defenders) on a daily basis. Its edition by Joseph Anglade is followed by a fourth volume that provides a comprehensive insight of the work.
We will publish later the first edition of Las flors in the DELO series.
The first volume starts with a short foreword and links to the online resources we reused to build those four volumes. We added two reviews by Clovis Brunel and Edmond Faral. The Book 1 of Leys d’amors includes a history of the creation of the Consistòri del Gai Saber, and some miscellanea: a poem about God and Trinity, a classification of sciences, a division of rhetorics, and various considerations. Click here to read or download Guilhem Moliner’s book 1 of Las leys d’amors (#111 of the Documents pour l’étude de la langue occitane series) from the IEO Paris website.
The second volume includes the Book 2 of Leys d’amors is a treatise of poetics, discussing sounds, rhymes, types of poetry, and even the linguistical scope of that treatise: it provides a list of “foreign” languages (French, Normand, Picard, Basque called Navarran…) and sets the Gascon as “distant from the law” (but not foreign). Click here to read or download Guilhem Moliner’s book 2 of Las leys d’amors (#112 of the Documents pour l’étude de la langue occitane series) from the IEO Paris website.
The third volume includes the Book 3 of the Leys d’amors, which is the grammar proper. Click here to read or download Guilhem Moliner’s book 1 of Las leys d’amors (#113 of the Documents pour l’étude de la langue occitane series) from the IEO Paris website.
The fourth volume of Anglade’s edition is a compilation of studies on the Leys d’amors written by Joseph Anglade, a prominent specialist of Old Occitan, which pushed to the adoption of Occitan in place of Provençal for the name of the language. Click here to read or download Joseph Anglade’s Études sur las leys d’amors (#114 of the Documents pour l’étude de la langue occitane series) from the IEO Paris website.
Alphonse Blanc (b. 1846) was a Languedocian scholar, who published many columns about Old and Modern Occitan at the end of the XIXth century. He was a teacher in Narbona and a member of the Archeological Commission of that city. In 1891, he publishes in the Revue des Langues Romanes this text about the Old Occitan (he uses the word Provençal) – Latin dictionaries contained in two manuscrits in the French National Library (Ms. 7657 and Ms. 7685). He shows both are late copies of the same text, dating around 1400. Instead of publishing the full text, he stresses the words that are not in the Raynouard dictionary (see DELO #52 to 63). Our foreword ends with a list of known publications of Alphonse Blanc.
The text was extracted from the Revue des langues romanes (1891) digitized and published on the Gallica website.
Giovenale Vegezzi Ruscalla (1799-1885) was a Romance languages specialist belonging to so-called pre-Ascolian linguists. His research was as focused as much on history and ethnology (he coined the word in Italian) as on language.
He gathered material on the Piedmontese dialect but was also interested by the Occitan spoken in the Waldensian Valleys. As he was granted a project to draw an ethnic map of the newly unified Italy, he published that article “Colonia piemontese in Calabria. Studio etnografico” about the Guardia Piemontese Occitans, in the 1862 issue of the Rivista contemporanea. At that time Guardia was not yet called Piemontese, and Vegezzi wrote the rationale to change its name.
Vegezzi also published a manifest for keeping Niça inside the Kingdom of Italy (La nazionalità di Nizza, 1860) and another one to eradicate the use of French in the Waldensian Valleys and the Valley of Aoste (Diritto e necessità di abrogare il francese come lingua ufficiale in alcune valli della provincia di Torino.)
Vegezzi’s main interest of study was not Occitan, but Romania and the Romanian language: he taught it in the Turin university until he retired.
The text was extracted from the Rivista contemporanea digitized and published on the Internet Archive.
Click here to read or download Giovenale Vegezzi Ruscalla’s Colonia piemontese in Calabria. Studio etnografico (#109 of the Documents pour l’étude de la langue occitane series) from the IEO Paris website.
Josèp Condò Sambeat was a catholic priest and the first major author in the Aran valley Occitan known as Aranese. Born in Montcorbau (1867), he was ordained priest in 1891 and was in charge of Aranese parishes from 1905 to his dead in Bossòst in 1919. A poet in Catalan language, he was convinced to write in Occitan by Bernard Sarrieu.
His Aranese vocabulary was published in 1915 in the Butlletí de dialectología catalana. 27 pages with a sort of phonetic transcription of his upper valley Aranese, including interesting examples.
We provide here an extract of that review thanks to the Bibliotèca de Catalonia. We have added the poem “Era Val d’Aran” as published in the Revue de Comminges (1912).
Heinrich Morf (1854-1921) was a Swiss scholar specialist of Romance (Arpitan and Rhetic) dialectology and Old Occitan. In 1910 he started teaching Romance philology in the University of Berlin. In 1911 he became a member of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences. The lecture he made about the Old Occitan literary language (“Vom Ursprung der provenzalischen Schriftsprache”) was published in the 1912 issue of the Sitzungsberichte der königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.
In 1913, the Revue des Langues Romanes published two reviews, one by Giulio Bertoni, the other by Juli Ronjat. They correct some statements from Morf. For instance, Ronjat notes the word lemosin stands for the whole Old Provençal (Occitan) language.
The pages from the Sitzungsberichte der königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften were extracted from the digitalization made by the Internet Archive website. Snapshots taken from the Revue des Langues Romanes come from the Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Gallica website).
Click here to read or download Friedrich Morfs’s Vom Ursprung der provenzalischen Schriftsprache, and the related reviews (#107 of the Documents pour l’étude de la langue occitane series) from the IEO Paris website.
From the very beginning of his leadership of the Félibrige, Frederic Mistral was involved in the Armana Prouvençau yearly publication. He often used aliases, like “lou Felibre de Bello-Visto”. In 1856, he published a 4-page introduction to the “Provençal language” with some interesting statements on dialects. He counted then four of them, Rhône, Marseilles, Languedocian, and Gascon.
We have used this opportunity to add some items of Mistral’s huge Occitan-French dictionary (lou Tresor dóu Felibrige) to display Mistral’s vision of the language and of its variation. It is obvious that Mistral has a broad vision of the language of Oc or Provençal encompassing what we call now Occitan, but also, to some extent, the Catalan language.
Pages from the Armana Prouvençau were extracted from the digitalization made by the Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Gallica website). Snapshots taken from the Tresor dóu Felibrige come from the high quality digiltalization published on the Occitanica website.
The first edition of the Abbot of Sauvages Occitan-French dictionary was published in Nimes in 1756. Its complete title is:
Dictionnaire languedocien-françois ou choix des mots
languedociens les plus difficiles à rendre en François. Contenant un recueil des principales fautes que commettent dans la diction, & dans la Prononciation Françoise, les Habitants des Provinces Méridionales du Royaume, connus à Paris sous le nom de Gascons. Avec un petit Traite de Prononciation & de Prosodie Languedocienne. Ouvrage enrichi dans quelques-uns de ses articles de notes historiques et grammaticales, et d’observations de physique et d’histoire naturelle.
Such a title highlights both the uncertain naming of the Occitan language at that time, and its unity as perceived by the abbot (see the Franchimand entry extract we printed on the cover).
In 1756, the Occitans are Languedocian-speaking Gascons…
Our edition is split into two parts. The first one includes letters A-D and a review by François Raynouard (in the Journal des Savants March 1824 issue) of the third edition of that dictionary, edited by the abbot’s great-nephew in 1820-1821 (already published in our series).
The second part includes letters E-Z.
The dictionary was digitized by the Internet Archive. The Journal des Savants extract comes from Google Books.