Louis Piat was a Paris-born lutherian, from a family deeply rooted in the neighbouring Seine-et-Marne. He spent a part of his student’s life in occitan protestant strongholds (Nerac, Montalban) but he finally passed five exotic language diplomas at the Paris “Langues Orientales” high school, and worked the rest of his life as a french foreign affairs agent. Interested by the Occitan language, he learnt it and soon published translations from Persian and from Ancient Greek. He missed some tools and this is mainly the reason for which he built them: a huge French-Occitan dictionary, and an Occitan grammar.
Click here to read or download volume 1 (A-D), here to read or download volume 2 (E-O), and there to read or download volume 3 (P-Z) of Louis Piat’s Dictionnaire français occitanien (#120 to 122 of the Documents pour l’étude de la langue occitane series) from the IEO Paris website.
Camille Chabaneau, a Nontronh-born postman, managed to get the position of Occitan professor in the University of Montpellier. Twice published as part of reviews, this study on the language and litterature of Limousin managed to be printed separately in 1892, with two appendixes by Alfred Leroux. Paul Meyer, from the Paris-based Romania, did not like Chabaneau was not obeying his theses on the “former language of Oc”. Necrologies by Jean Daniel and Antoine Thomas, detail the extensive coverage of the limousin language and history by Chabaneau and Leroux .
Click here to read or download Camille Chabaneau and Alfred Leroux’ La langue et la littérature du Limousin (#119 of the Documents pour l’étude de la langue occitane series) from the IEO Paris website.
We follow the republication of Doctor Louis Queyrat’s masterpiece with his lexicon of Chavanac language, an Occitan dialect at the boundary of Auvergnat and Limousin.
We have splitted it in two volumes for filesize reasons. Note that the digitisation by the Bibliothèque numérique du Limousin is missing a few pages.
Click here to read or download Louis Queyrat’s Le patois de la région de Chavanat. Vocabulaire patois-français first (#117 of the Documents pour l’étude de la langue occitane series) and second (#118) volume from the IEO Paris website.
Doctor Louis Queyrat was a dermatologist and syphilologist who is best remembered for the erythroplasia of Queyrat (a carcinoma in situ of the skin of the penis). During 25 years, Queyrat was head of the dermatology service of l’Hôpital Ricord, a venereal hospital in Paris, now Hôpital Cochin.Born in Chavanat, at the boundary of Auvergnat and Limousin dialects, he never stopped to speak his language with the many Creusois that were living in the Paris area. During a great part of his life, he prepared a complete study of his language, and decided to publish it in the 1920s.
His work has two parts, the first one, that was published in 1927, includes a grammar and a part about folklore. His work was well received by Joseph Nouailhac, one of the best specialists of the Limousine language and culture (see his in Lemouzi review).
We will also publish in DELO the second part of his work, a huge dictonary.
Click here to read or download Louis Queyrat’s Le patois de la région de Chavanat. Grammaire et folklore (#116 of the Documents pour l’étude de la langue occitane series) from the IEO Paris website.
Antoine Léandre Sardou was a Provence born emigrant in Paris, where he worked a the director of an institute, and published many schoolbooks. He is the father of French Academy member Victorien Sardou. He also published many books about the history, the geography, and the language of Occitania.
In 1878, he published that presentation of the Niçard language in the Annales de la Société des lettres, sciences et arts des Alpes-Maritimes, at a time everything was sought to justify the annexion to France of Savoy and Nice. The rationale is simple: as the dialect of Niça/Nice is Provençal, and Provençal is a French language, it is normal that Nice has been annexed to France.
The linguists’ criticism is sharp, like Paul Meyer’s in Romania. But Sardou is pursuing another goal. He becomes a Majoral of Felibrige (1881), the first capiscòl of the Escola de Bellanda (1882), and is honoured by Mistral by a letter in this book, and after his death by a page in the Armana Prouvençau (1895).
Click here to read or download Antoine Sardou’s L’idiome niçois. Ses origines, son passé, son état présent (#115 of the Documents pour l’étude de la langue occitane series) from the IEO Paris website.
The Consistory of Gai Saber is an attempt to normalize the poetic creation in Occitan that was started about 50 years after the annexation of Central Occitania to France. Guilhem Molinier is asked to write down a treatise to put the poetic creation into a very tight frame, under control of the Church and of the French power.
The Leys d’amors are not the first edition of Molinier’s work. A first one, know as Las flors del gay saber had been redacted around 1340. Nevertheless, the 1356 manuscript is shorter, and has undergone a copy edition to be easier usable by manteneires (defenders) on a daily basis. Its edition by Joseph Anglade is followed by a fourth volume that provides a comprehensive insight of the work.
We will publish later the first edition of Las flors in the DELO series.
The first volume starts with a short foreword and links to the online resources we reused to build those four volumes. We added two reviews by Clovis Brunel and Edmond Faral. The Book 1 of Leys d’amors includes a history of the creation of the Consistòri del Gai Saber, and some miscellanea: a poem about God and Trinity, a classification of sciences, a division of rhetorics, and various considerations. Click here to read or download Guilhem Moliner’s book 1 of Las leys d’amors (#111 of the Documents pour l’étude de la langue occitane series) from the IEO Paris website.
The second volume includes the Book 2 of Leys d’amors is a treatise of poetics, discussing sounds, rhymes, types of poetry, and even the linguistical scope of that treatise: it provides a list of “foreign” languages (French, Normand, Picard, Basque called Navarran…) and sets the Gascon as “distant from the law” (but not foreign). Click here to read or download Guilhem Moliner’s book 2 of Las leys d’amors (#112 of the Documents pour l’étude de la langue occitane series) from the IEO Paris website.
The third volume includes the Book 3 of the Leys d’amors, which is the grammar proper. Click here to read or download Guilhem Moliner’s book 1 of Las leys d’amors (#113 of the Documents pour l’étude de la langue occitane series) from the IEO Paris website.
The fourth volume of Anglade’s edition is a compilation of studies on the Leys d’amors written by Joseph Anglade, a prominent specialist of Old Occitan, which pushed to the adoption of Occitan in place of Provençal for the name of the language. Click here to read or download Joseph Anglade’s Études sur las leys d’amors (#114 of the Documents pour l’étude de la langue occitane series) from the IEO Paris website.
Alphonse Blanc (b. 1846) was a Languedocian scholar, who published many columns about Old and Modern Occitan at the end of the XIXth century. He was a teacher in Narbona and a member of the Archeological Commission of that city. In 1891, he publishes in the Revue des Langues Romanes this text about the Old Occitan (he uses the word Provençal) – Latin dictionaries contained in two manuscrits in the French National Library (Ms. 7657 and Ms. 7685). He shows both are late copies of the same text, dating around 1400. Instead of publishing the full text, he stresses the words that are not in the Raynouard dictionary (see DELO #52 to 63). Our foreword ends with a list of known publications of Alphonse Blanc.
The text was extracted from the Revue des langues romanes (1891) digitized and published on the Gallica website.
Click here to read or download Alphonse Blanc’s Vocabulaire Provençal-Latin (#110 of the Documents pour l’étude de la langue occitane series) from the IEO Paris website.
Giovenale Vegezzi Ruscalla (1799-1885) was a Romance languages specialist belonging to so-called pre-Ascolian linguists. His research was as focused as much on history and ethnology (he coined the word in Italian) as on language.
He gathered material on the Piedmontese dialect but was also interested by the Occitan spoken in the Waldensian Valleys. As he was granted a project to draw an ethnic map of the newly unified Italy, he published that article “Colonia piemontese in Calabria. Studio etnografico” about the Guardia Piemontese Occitans, in the 1862 issue of the Rivista contemporanea. At that time Guardia was not yet called Piemontese, and Vegezzi wrote the rationale to change its name.
Vegezzi also published a manifest for keeping Niça inside the Kingdom of Italy (La nazionalità di Nizza, 1860) and another one to eradicate the use of French in the Waldensian Valleys and the Valley of Aoste (Diritto e necessità di abrogare il francese come lingua ufficiale in alcune valli della provincia di Torino.)
Vegezzi’s main interest of study was not Occitan, but Romania and the Romanian language: he taught it in the Turin university until he retired.
The text was extracted from the Rivista contemporanea digitized and published on the Internet Archive.
Click here to read or download Giovenale Vegezzi Ruscalla’s Colonia piemontese in Calabria. Studio etnografico (#109 of the Documents pour l’étude de la langue occitane series) from the IEO Paris website.
Josèp Condò Sambeat was a catholic priest and the first major author in the Aran valley Occitan known as Aranese. Born in Montcorbau (1867), he was ordained priest in 1891 and was in charge of Aranese parishes from 1905 to his dead in Bossòst in 1919. A poet in Catalan language, he was convinced to write in Occitan by Bernard Sarrieu.
His Aranese vocabulary was published in 1915 in the Butlletí de dialectología catalana. 27 pages with a sort of phonetic transcription of his upper valley Aranese, including interesting examples.
We provide here an extract of that review thanks to the Bibliotèca de Catalonia. We have added the poem “Era Val d’Aran” as published in the Revue de Comminges (1912).
Click here to read or download Josèp Condò Sambeat’s Vocabulari aranés (#108 of the Documents pour l’étude de la langue occitane series) from the IEO Paris website.
Heinrich Morf (1854-1921) was a Swiss scholar specialist of Romance (Arpitan and Rhetic) dialectology and Old Occitan. In 1910 he started teaching Romance philology in the University of Berlin. In 1911 he became a member of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences. The lecture he made about the Old Occitan literary language (“Vom Ursprung der provenzalischen Schriftsprache”) was published in the 1912 issue of the Sitzungsberichte der königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.
In 1913, the Revue des Langues Romanes published two reviews, one by Giulio Bertoni, the other by Juli Ronjat. They correct some statements from Morf. For instance, Ronjat notes the word lemosin stands for the whole Old Provençal (Occitan) language.
The pages from the Sitzungsberichte der königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften were extracted from the digitalization made by the Internet Archive website. Snapshots taken from the Revue des Langues Romanes come from the Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Gallica website).
Click here to read or download Friedrich Morfs’s Vom Ursprung der provenzalischen Schriftsprache, and the related reviews (#107 of the Documents pour l’étude de la langue occitane series) from the IEO Paris website.